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Globalisation Of Women’s Rights Norms: The Right To Manifest Religion And ‘Orientalism’ In The Council Of Europe
Women's Rights TIP KIT
By : Charlotte Helen Skeet
Women’s access to and enjoyment of human rights are increasingly being used as a global measure of other “goods” in societies: for instance as a measure of development, a gauge of the health and depth of democracy and as a general indicator of a state commitment and adherence to international responsibilities. Therefore, while the study of women’s relationship to human rights is of considerable importance and interest in itself it is also gaining prominence across a range of other areas of international and domestic law. This might be viewed as a positive indication of the growing strength of women’s human rights norms but it bears closer analysis. Also within this discourse on women’s rights what rights norms are being globalised and how is this occurring?This paper considers how supposedly universalist rhetorics around equality rights can advance ‘orientalist’ and patriarchal discourses in relation to who “women” are and how their rights may be realised. Such discourses may hinder implementation of women’s rights especially for women who are “other.” This is particularly evident in relation to women’s rights to freedom of expression, the manifestation of religious freedom and rights to participate in culture. To illustrate this specific focus is given to the increasing discrimination against Muslim women and to human rights responses in this context within Europe.
Afghanistan is a party to the following principle international Human Rights Treaties
1- The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (CCPR) was ratified on 24th April 1983.
2- The International covenant on Economics, social and cultural Rights (CESCR was ratified on 24th April 1983.
3- The International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) was ratified on 5th August 1983.
4- The convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) was ratified on 5th March 2003.
5- The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) was ratified on 26th June 1987.
6- The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified on 27th April 1994.
7- The Optional Protocol of the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC-OP-SC) on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography was ratified on 19th October 2002.
8- The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC-OP-AC) on the involvement of children in armed conflict was ratified on 24th Sept. 2003.