Theoretical Mass Media Research Approaches
Theoretical Mass Media Research Approaches
It is a theory that is concerned with what ought to happen in a certain issue as oppose to what is happening. Normative approach seeks out or constructs guiding moral precepts, in its more concrete applications political theory investigates the implications of moral precepts for actual political practice.
If to be applied in “The Promotion and Protection of Rights of Mass Media Practitioners”, this theory will give insight on how rights of mass media practitioners are being upheld by the institutions that promote and protect it. Also, it will supply us on how the rights of mass media practitioners should be promoted and protected by the institutions.
Behavioral analysis concentrates on why people behave in the way they do. Observable behavior, whether it is at the level of individual or the social aggregate, is the focus of analysis; and the explanation of that behavior should be susceptible to empirical testing.
In the promotion and protection of rights of mass media practitioners, it is essential to know how the government, being the institution that should promote and protect the rights of mass media practitioners, behaves on issues which are vital for the press. In the same way, it also seeks to determine the effects of the behavior of mass media practitioners to their rights.
Rational Choice Theory
Rational choice theory posits all action is fundamentally rational in character and that people calculate the likely costs and benefits of any action before deciding what to do . If applied to the promotion and protection of mass media practitioners, rational choice theory will try to see how the promotion and protection of rights of mass media practitioners affect their working behavior.
Discourse theory is concerned with the role of meaningful social practices and ideas in political life. It analyses the way systems of meaning or discourses shape the way people understand their roles in society and influence their political activities.
In the promotion and protection of rights of mass media practitioners, it is essential to know how the institutions and the mass media practitioners act with regards to the discourses and how these discourses influence the way they value their positions when it comes to the promotion and protection of the rights of mass media practitioners.
In studying the promotion and protection of the rights of mass media practitioners using the Marxist theory, the researcher will try to find if there are underlying circumstances that make the promotion and protection of the rights of the press a pressing issue to date- be it the issue of who is who in the social strata or be it an issue of the exploitation of a class by another class.
Post-modernism is based upon a relativistic theory of knowledge- that is the belief that there are no certain, single truths about the world. Instead, every question has an infinite number of answers, each being equally as valid as each other.
In the case of the promotion and protection of rights of mass media practitioners, it is important to note the relative nature of the term exploitation. It simply falls upon who exploits who, for that matter. It can be the press who exploits its rights and freedom, or it can be the institutions, be it the law or the implementer of the law, that are too oppressive or even exploitative.
Pluralism as a theory believes that the state is neutral; that societal groups are potentially equal in their influence; and though some may say it is not true, pluralism also states that the political system is open.
In studying the promotion and protection of the rights of mass media practitioners, it is important to see if the state does its job to protect the press from a possible attack to their person or even to their life. At the same time, it is interesting to know how the mass media practitioners themselves abuse their rights and how the state acts upon it.
Elitist doctrine believes that the history of politics is the history of elite domination. In this manner, one will see how the elites affect the overall function and role of the mass media; and how it, in turn affects the promotion and protection of the rights of the press.
Phenomenology is a method for the description and analysis of consciousness through which philosophy attempts to gain the character of a strict science. Its primary objective is the direct investigation and description of phenomena as consciously experienced, without theories about their causal explanation and as free as possible from unexamined preconceptions and presuppositions.
Putting it to the promotion and protection of rights of mass media practitioners, one will try to see the causes of the failure of the state to promote and protect the rights of the media.
Qualitative method is a generic term that refers to a range of techniques including participant observation and intensive interviewing. Using this method, the researcher will try to see firsthand how the institution’s promotion and protection of the rights of mass media practitioners trickle down to the practitioners themselves. It will give fresh,